Intellectual disability is characterized by significant deficits in mental functioning and adaptive behavior observed in many daily and practical skills prior to the age of 18 (AAMD, 2010). People with disabilities have difficulties in conceptualizing, writing and reading, perceiving time, numbers and space. Difficulties can also be related to social skills such as communication and interpersonal relationships.All this leads to a lack of confidence. However, the main reason for the low self-esteem of people with intellectual disability is social stigma.
The nature of intellectual disability is particularly heterogeneous in terms of etiology, type and characteristics of the population. Intellectual disability is associated with an Intelligence Quotient of 70 and below, that can be measured by specially standardized tests. It can be mild, moderate, severe or profound.
Due to the difficulties that people with intellectual disability face, they need further support to develop new skills, understand complex concepts and interact with other people. The scope and duration of the support vary. For instance, someone with mild intellectual disability might need support so as to find a job. Someone with severe or profound intellectual disability might need daily support in every aspect of his/her life. It is important to remember that a person with intellectual disability can live independently by receiving the appropriate support.